Friday, May 22, 2020

Dogged Police Harassment And Violence - 2152 Words

Sometime past three o’clock, on a warm July afternoon, Eric Garner stood in front of a Staten Island beauty supply store allegedly selling what are commonly referred to as â€Å"Loosies† - untaxed cigarettes usually sold for between ten cents and a quarter. Hulking, black, with a broad chest, the forty-three-year-old grandfather was often described by friends as the â€Å"neighborhood peacemaker†; an amiable giant endowed with a generous, congenial attitude. With his back arched against the store’s window, he is swiftly circled by a band of NYPD officers. At first the interaction remains unremarkable; one officer, as the video reveals, can be seen indifferently chewing gum as Garner explains his predicament to the small congregation of cops.†¦show more content†¦He flinches in surprise, attempting to evade the officers’ forceful grasp. Yet rather than de-escalating the conflict - or giving the visibly shaken Garner a chance to regain compos ure - Officer Daniel Pantaleo’s muscular arms lock his neck in a chokehold. Pantaleo constricts him with the authoritarian zeal of Judge Dredd, despite his desperate pleas for air. â€Å"I can’t breathe...I can’t breathe,† Garner begs, his consciousness slipping as the officer ceases to relent. For another 23 tortuous seconds, even after Garner falls to the ground, the officer continues to clench his neck, squeezing the life out of a man who two minutes prior was quietly idling in front of a store. When the officer finally subdues his boa-like constraint, the severity of Garner’s condition becomes evident: he lays lifeless on the sidewalk, prolonged oxygen deprivation having caused a massive heart attack. The events of the now infamous video have evolved to become a symbol of police brutality; a rallying cry for those disaffected with our justice system. Garner’s last words: â€Å"I can’t breathe†, have been adopted as the mantra of recent demonstrations. More importantly, unlike the shooting death of Michael Brown, whose case was enshrouded in a fog of conflicting witnesses and forensic reports, Garner’s death serves as an irrefutable, visceral testament to the violent excesses of law enforcement. Although the Grand Jury investigating Pantaleo’s conduct

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Fast Food Industry in Turkey Essay - 1779 Words

Fast Food Industry in Turkey Turkey has a fast growing $5.6 billion HRI food service sector, due to increased incomes,urbanization, more women working outside the home, and huge growth in tourism. Major changes in the life styles, incomes, and consumption patterns of Turks in the last decade means they are increasingly prone to eat meals and socialize over food outside of the home. The growing number of fast food chains and restaurants in newly astablished shopping centers and hypermarket complexes are evidence of this newly emerging demand. A new and faster pace of life has also led people to find quicker meal solutions for their shortened lunch hours. This has developed two niche sectors; fast food and institutional food†¦show more content†¦The sector is expected to reach $15 to $20 billion revenues per year within five years. Continued growth in tourism sector should lead to increasing numbers of foreign cuisine restaurants, both inside and outside hotels. TABLE 2 FOOD SERVICE REVENUES BY SUBSECTOR,1998 TABLE3 MARKET SIZE OF HRI FOOD SERVICE SECTOR IN TURKEY, 1994-1998 Here we show the summary of the advantages and challenges facing US food products in Turkey: Advantages: The number of US fast food outlets is increasing rapidly . Some Us products are more competitively priced than local products. Branded foreign products do well in the Turkish market due to changing consumption patterns and Western influence . Turkish society is repetative to new productsreadily adopt Western tastes. The number of foreign cuisine restaurants and international hotel chains are increasing. Challenges: Customs Union with the EU created a privileged position forEU country imports to Turkey. Transportation costs are less for products from neigbouring countries. Some high import tariff rates exist. There is a well-developed local food-processing sector providing most needed items. European and Far East cuisine are still dominant in restaurants and hotels. MARKET STRUCTURE AND SUBSECTOR PROFILES A.Distribution Channels and New-to-Market Exporter information: The distribution system in Turkey is beginning to shift from theShow MoreRelatedThe American ( Food ) Revolution1270 Words   |  6 PagesJaehun Lee 10/8/15 Summer Reading Essay The American (Food) Revolution Medical Experts are divided on whether or not the government should increase regulation on fast and processed foods. Remember those days when Thanksgiving dinners were a family affair? When the whole family went to the supermarket and bought turkey, ham, potatoes, and all of the raw ingredients needed to make every dish? When the whole family worked together to make a Thanksgiving meal to be shared by everyone? Today, this isRead MoreGeography of the Big Mac1384 Words   |  6 Pagesplaces throughout the United States and Canada that classify as this climate. The pickles are needed to be raised in a warm atmosphere. This is why the pickles for the big mac are grown in Spain and Turkey. Spain has a Mediterranean climate with dry summers and relatively warm winters, and Turkey has hot and dry summers and mild winters. The beef is nurtured in Ireland. This is mainly due to the fact that Ireland has sporadic weather that is not necessarily spectacular for growing crops. ThisRead MoreHotel and Restaurant Industry in Turkish Economy2249 Words   |  9 PagesNational Economy 3. Impacts of Hotel and Restaurant Industry on National Economy 4. Hotel and Restaurant Industry 4.1. Hotel Industry 4.2. Historical Background of Hotel Industry 4.3. Investments in Hotel Industry in Turkey 4.4. Evaluation of Hotel Industry 4.5. Restaurant Industry 4.6. Historical Background of Restaurant Industry 4.7. Investments in Restaurant Industry in Turkey 5. S.W.O.T Analysis for Hotel and Restaurant Industry 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES 1. Introduction Read MoreDont Blame the Eater Essay623 Words   |  3 PagesEater† by David Zinczeko. In his article â€Å"Don’t Blame the Eater,† David Zinczenko argues that today’s fast food chains fill the nutritional void in children’s lives left by their overtaxed working parents. With many parents working long hours and unable to supervise what their children eat, Zinczenko claims, children today regularly turn to low-cost, calorie-laden foods that the fast food chains are too eager to supply. When Zinczenko himself was a young boy, for example, and his single motherRead MoreGlobalization And Its Effects On Society Essay1076 Words   |  5 Pagesto facilitate various international agreements. (Mehlika, 2015, p.8). For example, Turkey is a member of the EU and this has negatively affected the democracy of the nation. Turkey had to change some of their policies to follow rambling practises of the EU reforms. This caused some negative impacts, which can be seen as a result of the ineffectiveness of the EU’s political conditionality in their rel ations with Turkey. (Usul, 2011, p.120). It can be clearly seen that intervention from other internationalRead MoreFast Food Is Becoming More Than Popular850 Words   |  4 PagesFast food is becoming more and more popular in the United States every year. There is no doubt that everyone at some point in time has to eat; whether it’s fast food, a snack, or a home cooked meal. The convenience of fast food may seem like the perfect answer when the feeling of hunger strikes. Although fast food is convenient, health should always be a first priority when making a meal choice. America is known as the fattest country in the world. The easy access to food definitely contributes toRead MoreFast Food1145 Words   |  5 PagesDraft 3 Fast food Obesity is an epidemic that is sweeping over the United States today. It’s affecting both adults and children. With the increase in fast food availability and a decrease in the time most Americans have to prepare nutritious meals at home, it’s obvious why more people are eating at fast food restaurants. Obesity is a growing problem in the United States and more and more children are being affected. But do uneducated families have the right to put the blame on fast food restaurantsRead MoreGlobalisation and International Integration1209 Words   |  5 Pagesaffected tourism, with particular focus on tourism in Turkey. Tourism is believed to have originated in the UK, as a result of the Industrial Revolution. The concept of travel as a way of spending one’s leisure time was promoted primarily to factory owners and traders, also referred to as the new middle class. With the growth of international trade and subsequently electronic commerce, tourism has now become one of the world’s fastest growing industries. Countries that excel in the tourism sector canRead MoreFood Chains And Food Manufacturers Must Bear Some Of The Blame For The Country s Weight Problem Essay1559 Words   |  7 PagesFast- food chains and food manufacturers must bear some of the blame for the country’s weight problem. All over America, people are surrounded by TV commercials and advertisements for the tastiest, cheapest and unhealthiest food you can find. With so many people being targeted with these ads, the rate of obesity is on the rise. With portion sizes of food expanding, like supersize burgers, large fries with large beverages are being served, there is no surprise the size of people is expanding tooRead MoreOverview of Mcdonalds1160 Words   |  5 Pageselaborate on their new strategy of â€Å"Speedy Service System†. Initially the new strat egy was not well received, but by 1952 the brothers we successful again and had signed their first franchise. The brothers were very successful in the fast food industry from its inception, but they lacked many skills in developing franchises. They did however realize their inadequacy in this area and eventually hired Ray Kroc to become their franchise agent, though not without a stringent contract. Eventually

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Essay - 2174 Words

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively new diagnosis that was associated with survivors of war when it was first introduced. Its diagnosis was met largely with skepticism and dismissal by the public of the validity of the illness. PTSD was only widely accepted when it was included as a diagnosis in 1980 in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association. PTSD is a complex mental disorder that develops in response to exposure to a severe traumatic event that stems a cluster of symptoms. Being afflicted with the disorder is debilitating, disrupting an individual’s ability to function and perform the most basic tasks. Who gets PTSD?†¦show more content†¦Several different factors can contribute to how a person responds to a traumatic stressor and scientist and theoreticians have found other factors can determine individuals who are more likely to develop PTSD when exposed to a catastrophic event. These factors can include their past exposure to trauma, their mental health history, their families’ history of psychological problem, age, gender, biological makeup, social network, as well accessibility to mental health treatment facilities. An individual with a strong social support before and after the traumatic event is likely to have a positive adjustment after the trauma than an individual who has a poor connection and attachment with their social circle. Some studies on heritability of the disorder shows a small hereditary component that predisposes a person to the disorder contributes to increase their probability of exposure to trauma. â€Å"For example a hereditary deficit in p roblem-solving capacity may contribute to higher levels of exposure to potentially traumatic stressors and lower levels of resources to promote recovery following exposure† (Reyes, Elhai, Ford, p. 259). Resilience Resilience is the ability for the individual to cope with the disorder and recover from exposure to traumatic events. Many factors such as strong connection and support from one’s own social domain (family and friends), individual’sShow MoreRelatedPost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )990 Words   |  4 PagesPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common anxiety disorder characterized by chronic physical arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts and images of the traumatic event, and avoidance of things that can call the traumatic event into mind (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, Nock, 2014). About 7 percent of Americans suffer from PTSD. Family members of victims can also develop PTSD and it can occur in people of any age. The diagnosis for PTSD requires one or more symptoms to beRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1471 Words   |  6 PagesRunning head: POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 1 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Student’s Name Course Title School Name April 12, 2017 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental disorder that many people are facing every day, and it appears to become more prevalent. This disorder is mainly caused by going through or experiencing a traumatic event, and its risk of may be increased by issuesRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1401 Words   |  6 PagesAccording to the Mayo-Clinic Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, commonly known as PTSD is defined as â€Å"Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that s triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event† (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014). Post Traumatic Stress disorder can prevent one from living a normal, healthy life. In 2014, Chris Kyle playedRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1198 Words   |  5 Pages Post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) is a mental illness that is triggered by witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event. â€Å"PTSD was first brought to public attention in relation to war veterans, but it can result from a variety of traumatic incidents, such as mugging, rape, torture, being kidnapped or held captive, child abuse, car accidents, train wrecks, plane crashes, bombings, or natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes(NIMH,2015).† PTSD is recognized as a psychobiological mentalRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1423 Words   |  6 Pages Mental diseases and disorders have been around since humans have been inhabiting earth. The field of science tasked with diagnosing and treating these disorders is something that is always evolving. One of the most prevalent disorders in our society but has only recently been acknowledged is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Proper and professional diagnosis and definitions of PTSD was first introduced by the American Psychiatric Association(APA) in the third edition of the Diagnostic andRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1162 Words   |  5 PagesSocial Identity, Groups, and PTSD In 1980, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD,) was officially categorized as a mental disorder even though after three decades it is still seen as controversial. The controversy is mainly founded around the relationship between post-traumatic stress (PTS) and politics. The author believes that a group level analysis will assist in understanding the contradictory positions in the debate of whether or not PTSD is a true disorder. The literature regarding this topicRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1550 Words   |  7 PagesPost Traumatic Stress Disorder â€Å"PTSD is a disorder that develops in certain people who have experienced a shocking, traumatic, or dangerous event† (National Institute of Mental Health). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has always existed, PTSD was once considered a psychological condition of combat veterans who were â€Å"shocked† by and unable to face their experiences on the battlefield. Much of the general public and many mental health professionals doubted whether PTSD was a true disorder (NIMH)Read MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )944 Words   |  4 Pageswith Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Stats). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a mental disorder common found in veterans who came back from war. We can express our appreciation to our veterans by creating more support programs, help them go back to what they enjoy the most, and let them know we view them as a human not a disgrace. According to the National Care of PTSD, a government created program, published an article and provides the basic definition and common symptoms of PTSD. Post-traumaticRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1780 Words   |  8 Pagesmental illnesses. One such illness is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental illness that affects a person’s sympathetic nervous system response. A more common name for this response is the fight or flight response. In a person not affected by post-traumatic stress disorder this response activates only in times of great stress or life threatening situations. â€Å"If the fight or flight is successful, the traumatic stress will usually be released or dissipatedRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1444 Words   |  6 PagesYim – Human Stress 2 December 2014 PTSD in War Veterans Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition that is fairly common with individuals that have experienced trauma, especially war veterans. One in five war veterans that have done service in the Iraq or Afghanistan war are diagnosed with PTSD. My group decided to focus on PTSD in war veterans because it is still a controversial part of stressful circumstances that needs further discussion. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD amongst war

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Principles Of Info Security - 3332 Words

CIS2005- Principles of Info Security Assignment 3 - CASE STUDY REPORT Submitted by Submitted to Mrunal Shah Michel Lane USQ ID: 0061065914 Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Background and Problem Analysis 1 The Background 1 The Problem: Transaction Malleability 2 Threat Analysis 3 1. Spoofing 3 2. Man-in-the-Middle 4 Vulnerabilities Assessment 5 Penetration Testing 7 Dependencies and Success Factors 7 Asset Dependencies 7 Service Dependencies 8 Recommendations 9 References 11 Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to analyze security vulnerabilities, evaluate the capabilities of current system to counter threats and to provide the possible mechanisms to secure the information from potential risks for internet based bitcoin exchange system of BigCoinX (BCX) and company is serious about their exchange’s security, because the exchange is based on internet so they are more worried about the potential risks of hacking their website which could drastically harm their image. Now a day’s customer personal information security is an integral part of every company’s information security plan which operates on internet whether big or small. In recent times there have been many hacking attacks on websites like Gmail (). resulting in the loss of the user information. BCX’s is also concerned because they operate a currency exchange online and if any breach in the system happens they wouldShow MoreRelatedSecurity Is A Process Not Product1041 Words   |  5 PagesDr. Wang â€Å"Security is a process not product†. Security is a continuous process to ensure information, people and network have necessary protection for reliable and secure day to day operations. The Information Technology(I.T) and telecommunications firms need complete and low cost security solutions. It is required and essential to protect a secured network from dangerous and deliberate threats. Security should have the qualities that enhance the interweaving of capabilities of security in completeRead MoreRelationship Between Info Sec And Cia Model1437 Words   |  6 PagesRelationship between Info Sec and CIA model. (What is a CIA model). 2) Introduction to the 3 principles. Relationship between the three principles 3) Ways to ensure CIA 4) Confidentiality with Policy, Technology and Education. Two examples with how confidentiality is lost with policy and technology on Storage/Processing/Transmission aspects. The practice of defending digital information from unauthorized Access, Use, Recording, Disruption, Modification and Destruction is Information Security. There comesRead MoreMid-Term Paper. Information Security Policy. Jahangir Shaik.1436 Words   |  6 Pages Mid-Term Paper Information Security Policy Jahangir Shaik South University Abstract: InfoSec Policy, generally it is one of most important factor in securing a data framework, is additionally one of the most every now and again disregarded and misjudged in private companies. Playing out the means important to make solid, successful, and more importantly, enforceable approach is typically seen to be past the assets of smallest businesses. However, with the inescapability of smallRead MoreEssay on Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)1587 Words   |  7 Pagescountervailing duties; and competition policy. Guiding principles for these negotiations are (1) the agreement will be consistent with the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), (2) all countries will be participants in all parts of the agreement, and (3) the final agreement will build on the existing agreements in the region such as the Andean Community and the Southern Cone Common Market (known by its Spanish acronym MERCOSUR). Guiding Principles of the Negotiations †¢ Decisions by consensusRead MoreEssay about The Impact of the RSS Breach on Critical Infrastructure 1211 Words   |  5 PagesRSA is a division of EMC Corporation that offers security products to businesses and government agencies. RSA’s flagship product is SecurID, a combination of two-factor authentication tokens (hardware and software) and the associated server software used in their implementation. This product aims to deliver secure remote access, including access to critical infrastructure. In 2009, it was estimated RSA had â€Å"about 40 million tokens and 250 million mobile software versions deployed in over 25,000 organizations†Read MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Online Banking Deception1617 Words   |  7 Pagesmost of the problems in the field of cyber-security and more specifically online banking fraud have been investigated from technological perspective. That is, these problems were considered solely as technical problems which required technical security solutions. However, most of the problems in the field of cyber-security are more economic than technical. Based on their explanation, economics introduces breakthroughs in understanding problems of security, based on explaining the actors involved andRead MoreOperating Systems : Operating System Essay1152 Words   |  5 PagesINFO SYS Operating Systems An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storageRead MoreThe United Nations1385 Words   |  6 Pagesdifferent organs. The U.N. contains many key organs such as the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat. All of the U.N.’s inner structures play an important role in international prosperity (Richardt et al., 2013). Accordingly, in the case of CBW’s emphasis will be focused on the General Assembly and the Security Council. There are special criteria in utilizing the special organs of the URead MoreInformation Security Policy ( Isp ) For Star Gold1294 Words   |  6 Pages INFO 2411: Foundations of Computer Security Project 1 07/03/2016 Student Name and SID: 1. Abdulaziz Aljafari – 100299460 ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ 2. Turki Aljudai – 100298138 ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ 3. Saud Alotaibi – 100300556 ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ I certify that this is my own work yes/no and that I have read and understand the University Assessment regulations. Information Security Policy (ISP) For Star Gold 1. Scope This Information SecurityRead MoreComputer Topology Of A Network1391 Words   |  6 Pagescalculation and therefore the principle of topology analysis is basically straightforward. Through numerical analysis, we tend to show that this methodology will realize network topologies with cheap values of all the factors. This paperwork introduces the planning and functions of HTIP (Home topology distinguishing Protocol), which might establish the house topology and check the property to finish devices and/or network devices. Applications will utilize this info to perform the fast, high-resolution

Chpt 24 Free Essays

Chpt 24 guide questions 1. To what extent was industrialization responsible for the deplorable conditions of the cities in the early 19th century? The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes that occurred in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. It was causing carelessness in the city and lead to more and dusty pollution from all the work which was required to be put in. We will write a custom essay sample on Chpt 24 or any similar topic only for you Order Now This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes which had led to this happening. . Who was Edwin Chadwick? What role did he play in the public health movement? Edwin Chadwick was an English social reformer, noted for his work to reform the Poor Laws and improve sanitary conditions and public health. He helped sanitize the areas and basically make them a lot cleaner and just plainly better to live in at the time. For he did not feel that sanitation was a big joke. Sanitization was clearly Chadwick’s main focus at the time. 3. What was the miasmatic theory of disease? How did it retard progress? The miasmic theory of disease was a theory that disease was caused by bad odors. it prevented the proper treatment of disease and scientific and medical development in the right direction. It did though lead to shorter not harder process of such with many problems coming form it. The miasmic theory would not very much be considered a failure in way though. 4. What contributions did Pasteur, Koch, and Lister make to life in urban Europe? Pasteur’s theory that germs caused disease helped the advancement of medical sciences and led to the breakthrough of vaccines. Koch helped discover the organism that caused disease and it helped create vaccines. Lister helped develop the idea of cleaning wounds. All these contributions lead to progress in Europe. 5. What were the reasons for the rebuilding of Paris? Who was responsible for this change? After the revolutions of 1848, Paris was transformed into a spectacle city. The urban planning of Haussmann greatly contributed to the developmental planning of Paris. The development of newly planned streets, parks and sewage systems helped to create a more efficient and advanced city. This lead too many rebuilding have to happen in Europe at this time which could be considered very well. 6. Why was the electric streetcar so important in improving urban life? Electric steel cars are a self-powered rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. Electric streetcars revolutionized urban life and enabled the cities to expand because they allowed for faster and more efficient travel and sparked new revolutions in technology. 7. Marx claimed that as a result of industrialization there was an increasing polarization of society Into rich and poor. Do the facts warrant such a conclusion? Marx’s ideas that industrialization caused a greater increase in the gap between the rich and the poor was correct because the jobs available for the poor required little skill, bad conditions and had little pay. It spread the gap between the two classes because it allowed for the upper classes to be favored over the lower classes and for them to manipulate the income of money in their favor. 8. Describe the differences and similarities between groups within the middle class. What separated and what united them? The middle class was separated into the bourgeoisie, hardworking business owners with money, potentially land and potentially political power, and the working middle class who had trades and more money than peasants but didn’t have land or political power and less money than the bourgeoisie. They were united by the need to overthrow the monarchists and the absolutist rulers and separated by the bourgeoisie’s power and money and the lower middle class’s occupation with food. . Describe the â€Å"labor aristocracy. † What were the interests of its members? How did they differ from the rest of the working class? The labor aristocracy was a group of talented workers that had strong moral, political and ohilisophical beliefs and were the â€Å"leaders† of the working class. They were all very focused on succeeding Europe and becoming ver y successful with all their working times. 10. What were the interests, motives, and lifestyle of the working class? How were they changing by the late nineteenth century? The working class was focused on feeding their family and leisure activities. It changed throughout the 19th century because many working class people began to wane away from the church and become less focused on religion. The ideas of life were vey much chinaging at this time. 11. Why was there a decline in illegitimacy after 1850? There was a decline in illegitimacy after 1850 because the working class became more stable. Families began to develop more and more and there was more economic stability so marriage was a more viable situation. 12. M 3. How common was prostitution in the nineteenth century? Prostitution was â€Å"frowned upon† on the surface but was very popular for men because they married later in life. It was very secret because it was disrespectable but it was extremely common. people would bever be looked at the same way if they were to ever act in such of a messed up way. 14. What was the social and economic position of women in the nineteenth century? Were they better off than in preindustrial society? Women were put into the home to be a wife and a mother, and nothing else. It was frowned upon for them to be anything other than that, i. e. to have an actual career. If women did work, it was lower class women and they worked in harsh conditions like factories. In the cities, they were often worse off than in preindustrialized Europe because the jobs in rural areas were safer and more open to women, whereas in the cities job opportunities were slim to none. 15. what changes occurred in child care and the attitudes toward children in the nineteenth century? What was the nineteenth-century view of masturbation? Children and parents became much closer and they began to connect, partly due to the decreasing birth rate, which was because of the disappearance of the need for children to work. Children’s education and upbringing became much more important. Often, children were smothered, especially in the case of sexual nature. Masturbation was a fear of parents and was highly frowned upon. 16. Overall, did family life improve in the nineteenth century? Explain. For some, yes and for others no. For the lower class it didn’t improve because the living conditions because of factory work were so poor. For middle and upper class families’ life improved because they became economically stable and could support, educate and provide for their family. 17. What was the realist movement in literature? Who were the major writers of this movement, and how did they differ from previous writers? Realism stressed that environment and heredity determined human behavior. They believed in natural laws and they wrote about natural and taboo subjects. Major writers were Zola, Balzac and Flaubert in France and MaryAnn Evans in Britain, Tolstoy in Russia and Dreiser in America. They’re genetic material was different from that of other writers. How to cite Chpt 24, Papers

Iraqi Organizational Culture

Question: Write an essay on Organizational Culture In Iraqi Kurdustan? Answer: 1. Introduction The Iraqi Kurdistan also known as the Southern Kurdistan is the autonomous region of Iraq and it borders the Kurdish regions of Iran. The regional capital of Iraqi Kurdistan is Erbil and democratic government known as the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) governs the region. The mixture within the work culture of the private organizations in Kurdistan and the difference between the culture of government bodies and private organizations makes it inevitable to evaluate the present norms of organizational culture of Kurdistan. According to Toma organizational culture is the behavior that the employees exhibit for each other within the organization and the meaning that internal and external employees attach to those behaviors. Performance enhancement and overall growth of the organization depends upon the employee performance within the organization. Thus, there exists a co relation between performance growth and organizational culture. Sjoberg suggested that key to a good organization performance is the strong cultural base of the organization. Sparrow thus suggested that a strong and positive organizational culture can make an average individual perform brilliantly and motivate an underperformer to perform better. Thus, keeping in mind the political turmoil and the political problems of the residents of Iraq Kurdistan, it is essential that congenial organizational culture should be present in the new organizations of Iraq Kurdistan so that the country can become developed like UK and USA. The assignment here focuses primarily on the influence and types of organizational cultures that are present within different organizations irrespective of their countries. Finally, the assignment will highlight the present organizational culture of Iraqi Kurdistan with the help of relevant academic concepts. 2. Concept of organizational culture According to Khodr and Zirar organizational culture represents the combined values, principles and attitudes of the people within the organization. Ismail and Jaafar stated that an organization is made up of employees from different cultural, social and religious background. Therefore, these employees have their own rooted cultures and beliefs. Thus in order to avoid any congenial environment within the organization and to avoid conflict of interest it is necessary to maintain one common organizational culture. Further Cooper, Johnson and Holdsworth stated that at present organizational culture includes the types of leadership style followed within the organization, the type of communication language and symbols used between the employees, the work procedures and the work routines and the types of performance measurement techniques used by the leaders to measure the success of the employees and the organization (Kandogan) Recent research shows that companies with strong organizational culture and effective leadership styles generally tend to have better financial performance and effective growth. However, the cultural characteristics of the organization should align with the objectives and the services of the organization. For instance, a software development company or a social media company like Google Inc should not adopt bureaucratic organizational style and a government concern should not adopt adhocracy culture. In majority of the situations, it has been seen that the organizations adopt reengineering methods, changes in pricing strategies, recruitment and selection and downsizing methods in order to derive long-term gains, however Karim, Khanaqa and Shukur stated that only adoption of a suitable organizational culture would be able to solve the problems of the organizations. 3. Types of organizational culture In 1999, Cameron and Quinn developed an organizational culture framework known as the Competing Values Framework. This model was effectively used for analyzing the corporate culture. The framework has two major dimensions for evaluation of the organizational culture. These two dimensions are the horizontal dimension (In/Out) and vertical dimension (Stability / Flexibility). Sanni and Reilly stated that the horizontal dimension in this framework measures the level to which the organization focuses on internal and external focus. On the contrary, the vertical dimension measures the flexibility and the stability level within the organization. Depending on the two major dimensions the four major types of organizational cultures were identified namely the clan, adhocracy, hierarchy and market. The following figure shows the ideal model of the Competing values Framework. Figure 1: Competing Values Framework (Source: Ybema, Yanow and Sabelis) The discussion over the different concepts of the model will help to understand the major types of organizational culture and the implications of these cultures over the performance levels of the organizations. 3.1 Cultural dimensions Horizontal: In/Out The horizontal dimension shows the degree to which a particular organization will focus internally or externally. The organization in the left side of the above diagram focuses on the internal activities within the organization and the organizations on the right side of the diagram focuses on the external parties like customers, suppliers and external stakeholders. This dimension focuses on the unity, integration and internal activities of the organization. Vertical: Stability/ Flexibility The vertical dimension focuses on decision-making ability of the organizations. Omer and Friis stated that the decisions within an organization could either be taken by only the upper level management of the company or depending on the changing business scenarios, the employees can also take some of the vital organizational decisions. Thus keeping the situations in mind, the vertical dimension shows two different levels of decision-making. The upper end of the diagram shows flexibility and discretion, which denotes that in the organizations in this dimension; the business decisions are taken by employees in majority of the situations in order to suit the changing needs. On the contrary the lower end of the diagram shows the stability and control which denotes that the organizations in this segment depends on the managers for their decisions. Four types of culture The four types of organizational culture depending on the two different dimensions are presented below: Clan This type of organizational culture is characterized by high degree of flexibility and discretion rather than relying completely on stability and control leadership style (Karim, Khanaqa and Shukur). The horizontal dimension of this type of organizational culture suggest that the these types of organizations are primarily focused on the internal activities rather than focusing on the external parties. Thus in these types of organizations free and flexible corporate culture is present. The employees are not bound by strict corporate rules rather they have the freedom to decide and design their functions. Sanni and Reilly stated that employees in these organizations are motivated by shared goals and shared visions. The organizational structures of these types of organizations are flat. There is a sense of unity among the people working in these organizations and they work together like a family. The employees of Clan organizational culture tend to be honest, motivated, and skillful and have the ability of making situational decisions that would suit to the changing needs of the business. The leadership style adopted in clan organizations are either parental leadership or situational leadership style. Karim, Khanaqa and Shukur commented that the clan leaders are generally supportive in nature and guides the employees in every changing situation and takes the decisions of the employees as important for the business functions. However, Ybema, Yanow and Sabelis argued that in a clan organizational culture, the focus of the leaders and the employees are primarily on the internal well being of the employees and achievement of the shared goals within the organization. These types of organization do not focus on the well-being of the external parties like the customers and the suppliers and they do not have any fixed set of rules for dealing with the external parties. Omer and Friis commented that however, majority of the organization and the external parties like the customers prefers clan organizational culture because it is a friendly organizational culture. The clan leaders are generally sensitive to the customers and the stakeholders. Some of the Japanese firms were seen to adopt this culture after the completion of World war II. Adhocracy These types of organizational cultures are characterized by higher degree of freedom and flexibility. The business functions of these types of organizations involve creative and dynamic decisions making ability. Thus, the employees of these organizations are always ready to take risks, accept the changes readily, and implement the same in their business functions (Kummerow and Kirby). For instance, the organizations dealing in software development, consultancy services, entertainment industry and creative industry are the common organizations that undertake adhocracy as their organizational culture. However, in contrast to clan, adhocracy concentrates on external positioning of the organizations services along with the high degree of flexibility. The major mottos of these types of organizations are to create a unique strategy and unique vision and use their own creativity to stand out within the crowd. Thus, Khodr and Zirar stated that the employees in these organizations are highly committed to experimentation and innovation is constantly devising ways to improve their present skills. It is also seen that these organizations always provides sufficient training facilities to the employees so that their skills may be enhanced and they may develop their knowledge, become highly independent, and take their own decisions. Thus, it may be concluded that the organizations using this culture often becomes the market leader in the product or service in which the company is dealing. Hierarchy This is a traditional approach and traditional culture followed in majority of the organizations. The organizations using this culture generally perform duties under a strict chain of command. In the past years before the advent of the new organizational cultures, hierarchy was considered to be the major organizational culture and use of bureaucracy was prevalent within the organizations. Thus, McLeod stated that an organization adopting this culture generally focuses on respecting of the command chain and rules that are being set within the organization. The major characteristics of this organizational culture are formal and structured organizations that are governed by the rules of the senior level management of the organization. These organizations have high internal focus and believe in maintaining stability with the help of controlling activities. The employees in these organizations depend upon the leaders and the senior level managers in terms of any functions and decision-mak ing. McLeod stated that in governmental organizations and large US agencies this type of organizational culture can be seen. The employees in this organization can deliver projects timely because of the high degree of rules and command present within the organization. Sanni and Reilly commented that since the government organizations and the retail chains do not require any innovation of creative ideas within their business segment, hence this type of organizational culture is suitable for them. Adoption of this organizational culture ensures low cost, dependable product and service delivery and smooth scheduling of the work pressure. Kandogan further stated that hierarchy cultural organization have employees who give due respect to the positions and power within the organization. The leadership styles adopted by the hierarchical leaders are generally transactional leadership style. Karim, Khanaqa and Shukur commented that the leaders in this corporate culture are generally co coord inators and organizers who keep close eye on the business situations. Market In this type of organizational culture, the management of the company focuses on control and stability however, the major focus of the management is over the external control polices. Ybema, Yanow and Sabelis stated that a market organization is the type of organization, which is focused on the internal and external transactions in terms of market. Thus the transactions, which are exchanges of values, flow smoothly between the internal and the external parties within the organization under the high degree of control and stability in decision- making. The organizations adopting the market culture are highly result-oriented. They establish a vision and a mission, which will enable the organization to reach the desired vision. Thus. The competitive and goal oriented nature of these organizations help them to succeed in the long run. For achievement of the desired visions and goal, the management of these organizations generally prefer high degree of control and stability within the inte rnal activities of the company. Lahafian the employees of these organizations have the same features like the hierarchical culture, however the employees are generally more focused on the goals and take the help of the leaders and the senior manager is reaching the desired levels. Thus, adoption of this culture helps in doing the things in a right manner. However, in this type of organizational culture, the manager will have to adopt the financial and non-financial motivational strategies and thus it may seem costly for the organization. Further Kummerow and Kirby stated that since the employees on these organizations are goal oriented hence if the goals and the targets are not defined properly and if there is a lack of cooperation among the employees then the achievement of the objectives is not possible. 3.2 Comparison between the four types of organizational cultures On comparing the four major organizational cultures, it has been seen that Clan and market culture types are highly similar to each other and adhocracy and hierarchy cultures shows high degree of differences within the organizational context. Sanni and Reilly highlights that clan cultures have high morale employees and the employees are satisfied with their positions and present state of business. On the contrary, adhocracy cultures are externally focused and hence the internal satisfaction levels of the employees remain unattended. In order to cater to the external needs the adhocracy culture believes in quick formation of teams and abandoned the team as soon as the goal has been achieved. Hence, internal bonding between the employees is absent. Hierarchy cultures have internal focus similar to that of the clan culture but also emphasizes over the centralized management control. Kandogan stated that the hierarchies give importance to the right way of doing things thus it stresses on the adoption of policies, procedures and rules. The major disadvantage of these organizations is there in ability of coping with the unique and changing business operations. The employees of these organizations are generally not given any training to make their own decisions or are not trained in management of changing or creative diverse situations, thus the employees can effectively respond to the regular business operations but cannot solve complex business problems. The following table summarizes the major features of the four types of organizational culture highlighting the major differences between the cultures. Points of differences Clan culture Adhocracy culture Hierarchy culture Market culture Nature of the culture Friendly Dynamic Formal and structured, procedure oriented Goal oriented Risks involved Medium degree of risks involved High degree of risks involved No risks involved High degree of risks involved functions Sensitive to customers and internal flexibility Unique and new products and services Dependable service delivery, smooth work schedule and low organizational costs Focus on goal achievement, increment of the market share and market penetration in terms of products and services. Leadership style Situational leadership, uniqueness within the employees, teamwork skills, consent of the employees valued Parental and situational leadership style, individual creativity and independent decision making ability, freedom of work, commitment to innovation and experimentation Bureaucratic leadership style, maintaining of stability, predictability and efficiency levels, Consistency and uniformity High motivation, good performances are highly valued, competitive in nature, winning motivation within the employees Examples of company adopting this culture Zappos Faceook McDonalds General Electrics Karim, Khanaqa and Shukur opined that leadership styles adopted within an organization also depends on the type of culture prevailing in the organization. Leaders can enhance their personal skills and success by acting appropriately with the changing culture of the organization. For instance, leaders in an adhocracy culture should encourage innovation, creativity and generation of new ideas. Thus in order to encourage these qualities the leaders in adhocracy culture needs to be visionary and highly future-oriented. The leaders of the clan culture should encourage continuous sense of improvements within the employees and not guide them effectively so that they can become independent and take their own situational decisions. Moreover, Omer and Friis commented that clan leaders should also possess effective team building skills since the major focus of the clan culture is on the development of the internal skills within the organization. The leaders in this culture thus encourages effec tive relationships between the employees mentor the employees so that they can develop congenial working environment(Lahafian). Jimenez and Kabachnik pointed out that the leaders in the hierarchical culture are generally good organizers and monitors. Here lies the major difference between adhocracy and hierarchy. The adhocracy leaders are mentors and the hierarchy leaders are monitors. In hierarchical monitor ship, a leader organize the situations of the business and provides directions to the employees on how to achieve the services. These leaders can effectively help the employees to understand the job requirements and the job roles. However, in case of change management occurring within these organizations, the leaders and the employees both become inefficient. Finally, the market leaders are the most highly trained and focused leaders among the four types of leaders. They help in maintaining control and stability by setting rules and train the employees to be independent if situation demands. These leaders are highly goal focused and designs the strategies and leadership styles depending upon the fulfillm ent of the goals. Phelps stated that the major aim of these organizations are to become better than their competitors and in order to do so they train, motivate, inspire, celebrate and place relentless emphasis on customer needs and employee satisfaction levels (Lahafian). 4. Background of organizational development in Iraqi Kurdistan After the fall of Saddam Hussein and the Baathist ruling regime in 2003, economic opportunities in Iraq began to flourish thereby attracting foreign investors and new business operations in Iraq. Pechey and Halligan stated that the Kurdish region of Iraq has been able to attract the highest amount of foreign investment due to its political stability and good infrastructure. Although the KRG formulates the legislations for the companies in Kurdish region, however the autonomy within the working regulations has helped in organizational development of the region. Currently Cooper, Johnson and Holdsworth stated that around 2000 foreign companies are working in the Kurdish region. The advent of the western organizations has given rise to large number of expatriates and foreign business people within the Southern areas of Kurdistan. Most of these expatriates and foreign client working for the organizations in Iraq are generally based in Dubai, visit Kurdistan, take accommodations in safe a nd secure company campuses for a week, and return to Dubai. Thus, the frequent visits of the foreign clients have given rise to a mixed organizational culture within Kurdistan. Apart from the private sector organizations, the various government-controlled organizations are also present in Kurdistan namely the Kurdistan Democratic party, Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, Socialist party of Kurdistan and the Iraqi Communist Party. However, the organizational development in Iraq Kurdistan is hampered due to some of the common challenges like section of effective talent, huge amount of brain drain during the wars, lack of effective training and developmental facilities, low developed educational system, insufficient learning style and ineffective leadership strategies(Lahafian). 5. Current organizational culture of government organizations of Iraqi Kurdistan In 2013, World Bank ranked Iraq 165 out of 185 countries as per their ranking of organizational business culture suggesting that Iraq is a considerably easy country of doing business. In terms of corruption Iraq was ranked 169 out of 172 as per the Corruption Perception Index. Majority of the organizations in Kurdistan generally speaks Indo European language that is neither related to Arabic nor related to Turkish language. Thus, Khodr and Zirar suggested that the organizational development in Iraq faces certain types of difficulties. The employees from other nationalities are not able to understand the native language of Kurdistan. The societal culture of Kurdistan is essentially different from that of the developed countries. Kurdish people are minority in position hence their level of freedom and independe3nce are also limited. The society of Iraqi Kurdish develops a communal culture, which suggests that the person of the Kurdish region primarily takes interest in the community a ctivities. Jimenez and Kabachnik) hence suggested that any disagreements between the Kurdish people might give reason to exclusion of the individual from the Kurdish community (Malik). Majority of the organizations in Kurdistan are government organization. Apart from the Kurdish government other political parties are also present that regulates the services of the organizations in Iraqi Kurdistan. The huge number of wars and the large amount of brain drain has resulted in lack of creative thinking options in Iraq. Denton-Borhaug opined that hierarchical organizational culture is seen within the private as well as the public sector organizations of Kurdistan. As per the Hofstedes cultural dimension rules, existence of high degree of power distance results in high level of hierarchical organizational culture in a particular country. In majority of the organizations, high degree of hierarchical culture can be seen. Especially in case of the political and the government organization in Kurdistan centralization is a popular chain of command. The junior level employee of the government organizations in Iraq perform according to the instructions of the senior level manage ment. The instructions of the senior level management are in turn influenced by the decisions and the rules of the ruling parties in the country (Haidari). Thus, the major characteristics of the government organization in Iraqi Kurdistan are high degree of employee loyalty, quick delivery of products and services and low level of training for the employees. Further, the organizations in Iraq are characterized by collectivist societies rather than individualistic society. According to Brewer and Venaik an individualistic society is the one where the person in supposed to look after their own family and themselves without any intervention in any other families. However, the communal culture of the Iraqi Kurdistan shows that they are not individualistic, rather they are highly collectivists and they focus on helping and co coordinating with each other in order to attain and solve problems. The employees in the organizations also exhibit collectivist culture. They help each other in fulfillment of their duties. Every employee in the organization takes responsibility of the fellow members. Grnnow stated that in collectivist societies offence on the part of an employee in the organization would lead to cause shame and loss of dignity of the senior level managers who are given the responsibility of guiding and training the employees. Further, the employer-employee relations are perceived in terms of moral terms. Hiring and promotional activities in the organizations takes place based on the seniority and experience of the employees and not based on the creativity of productivity of the employees (Lahafian). As per the Hofstedes cultural dimension score, the government organizations in Iraq have recorded the following scores Power distance: 95 Individualism: 30 Masculinity: 70 Uncertainty avoidance: 85 Long-term orientation: 25 Indulgence: 22 This scores shows that Kurdistan organizations recorded high degree of power distance, which arises from the presence of the hierarchical organizational culture. Karim, Khanaqa and Shukur argued that the presence of the hierarchical culture suggests that the employees within the organization already know their positions in the company and are not expected to show productivity or make any free decisions with respect to any other product or service of the organization that is not related to the position of the employee. Draskovic however pointed that the low score on individualism is a positive indicator. This shows that the Kurdistan organizations show case high degree of collectivism which is opposite to individualism. High degree of collectivism suggests that the employees will get due support of their seniors and their peers while any job performance. However, the organizational heads will also treat any mistakes done by the employees very seriously because that will affect their r eputation. The masculinity score is high suggesting that the organizational structures are mainly composed of majority of the male employees. However, Bell added that it is not an uncommon feature in Iraqi society. The Kurdistan population is majorly consisted of Muslim either form Iraq or from different parts of Arab and Dubai. It is a common culture in Muslim societies to prohibit their female counterparts from seeking employment opportunities. Omer and Friis stated that the main characteristics of the masculinity organizations in Kurdistan are the hard working nature of the employees. Due to high degree of political turmoil in that country, the employees generally adopts highly decisive and assertive nature and give emphasis on equity, competition and performance in order to grow the organizations quickly and match the organizations of the developed countries like UK and USA. The level of uncertainty avoidance is high. Wang and Liu commented that uncertainty avoidance is the way that the society deals with the fact future in uncertain and it is difficult to know the future. This score is high in this case thus it suggests that the organizations of Kurdistan maintain rigid rule and regulations and are not in favor of creativity, change and innovation because the employees and the management of the organizations fear for uncertain conditions are relatively very high. Pechey and Halligan stated that high uncertainty avoidance makes the leaders and the managers within the organizations narrow minded and focused only on the rules and regulations of the organization. In these types of organizational culture, there is an emotional need for rules although if the rules are not sufficient still the employees feel the need for the rules. Innovation and creativity skills require time to thrive and flourish hence in these organizations, time is considered to be equivalent to money which suggests that the time cannot be wasted for engagements in innovation and creativity. Thus it may be noted that Iraqi Kurdistan may develop in terms of organizational development however there are no employee skills development and neither is there any high range of inventions within the country. Khodr and Zirar in this regard stated that the Iraqis relevantly use their own available resources to form their organizations and recruit their own native people in the positions irrespective of their skills and knowledge. This hinders t he growth process of the organizations in Kurdistan. However, Barwari argued that since hierarchical culture is present hence it becomes easier for the international organizations to trade with Iraq because they are assured of timely delivery of the product and services. The employees of Iraqi organizations with high uncertainty avoidance scores shows resistance to any kind of change management within the organizations and give high degree of importance to the job and financial security. The long-term orientation describes how every society has to deal with its past while dealing with the challenges of present and past. In case of Iraqi Kurdistan organizations and society the long-term orientation is low which suggests that the employees and the people of Kurdistan prefer to maintain past traditions, norms, and superstitions in order to sustain their organizational growth and culture. Thus, the organizations follow routine structures and high rules that will help them to act as per their religions and traditions without bringing in any change within the society and the culture of the people. However this is not a desirable condition for the growth of private sector organizations because, these situations will hinder any kind of innovation and will not give rise to any organizational development. Moreover, past traditions will not make the organizations competitive among the other international organizations. The organizations are thus not able to focus on long term s trategies rather their focus becomes short term (Umeda). Finally, the last phase of the Hofsteds model focuses on the level of indulgence. According to Wang and Liu socialization is the key to become successful human beings. Socialization with different people from different countries, cultures and languages will make the individuals in a society broad-minded and more knowledgeable. The level of indulgence defines the extent to which people try to control their desires and impulses based on the way they are raised within the society. If the level of control is weak then the people of that society are termed to be indulgent and if the level of control is high then the people of that society is termed to be restraint. Iraqi Kurdistan organizations show low levels which denotes that the Iraqi society is one of the restraint society. Lahafian commented that employees of these kinds of organizations do not belief in formation of teams and groups. They prefer doing their work individually. The employees are also seen in restraining themselves fr om indulging in any socializing desires. They assume socializing to be a waste of time. In addition, Kummerow and Kirby previously stated that time is equivalent to money for the Kurdish people. Employees with these kinds of skills and actions generally restrict themselves in the fear that they may tend to break any traditions. Thus, there is a lack of teamwork, congenial working environment and peer reviews in the Kurdish organizations (Pechey and Halligan). Thus from the assessment of the present organizational culture of Kurdish organizations, it can be effectively stated that Iraqi organizations lack innovativeness and creativity within their work culture which is the major reason for their stagnant growth rate (Al-Bazzaz). 6. Conclusion The assessment of the organizational culture using two different models namely, the Hofsteds cultural dimensions and the Cultural framework shows that hierarchical organizational culture is present within the government organizations of Kurdistan. Further analysis of the nature of leadership and employee skills shows that Bureaucracy leadership style is still prevalent among the governmental organizations of Kurdistan. From this it may be concluded that with the passage of time if the management and the employees within the organizations do not change their way of work culture then they may lack behind in the competition. The employees may lack skills and with absence of proper duty, allocation will suffer from low productivity issues, which will in turn be negative for the organizational goal achievement. Moreover, the presence of high degree of masculinity and low degree of indulgence shows that the populations of Iraq are still following the past traditions. These are the major re asons for low level of education, high concentration of wealth and low degree of recognition. Although the country has overcome the situations of political war, however the country is still not very free from tyranny. Rather the management of different organizations should successfully adopt the adhocracy culture to make the organizations flourish. References A, Mustafa. Organisational Behaviour. London: Global Professional Publishing Ltd, 2013. Print. Al-Bazzaz, Pishtewan. 'Prospects Of Kidney Transplantation In Iraqi Kurdistan Region'. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences 16.1 (2012): 1-3. Web. Barwari, Nesreen. 'Reestablishing Peace In Kurdistan Through Natural Resource Management'. Asian Journal of Environment and Disaster Management (AJEDM) 02.01 (2010): 69. Web. Bell, Elaine. Organisational Culture And Learning. SaarbruÃÅ'ˆcken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2013. Print. Brewer, Paul, and Sunil Venaik. 'On The Misuse Of National Culture Dimensions'. 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Monday, April 27, 2020

National Stock Exchange free essay sample

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